We have adopted in our bylaws these twenty principles of education, slightly adapted from
the original language of Charlotte Mason in her final volume An Essay Towards a Philosophy of Education (1923).
These elegant bullet points compress Mason's most developed conception of her educational philosophy.
We value them as central tenets of our vision and practice.
I. Children are born persons.↬
II. They are born neither good nor bad, but with possibilities for good and for evil.
III. The principles of authority on the one hand, and of obedience on the other are natural, necessary, and fundamental; but—
IV. These principles are limited by the respect due to the personality of children, which must not be encroached upon whether by the direct use of fear or love, suggestion or influence, or by undue play upon any one natural desire.
V. Therefore, we are limited to three educational instruments—the atmosphere of environment, the discipline of habit, and the presentation of living ideas. Our motto is: "Education is an atmosphere, a discipline, and a life."
VI. When we say that "education is an atmosphere," we do not mean that a child should be isolated in what may be called a "child-environment" especially adapted and prepared, but that we should take into account the educational value of his natural home atmosphere, both as regards persons and things, and should let him live freely among his proper conditions. It stultifies a child to bring down his world to the child's level.
VII. By "education is a discipline," we mean the discipline of habits, formed definitely and thoughtfully, whether habits of mind or body. Physiologists tell us of the adaptation of brain structures to habitual lines of thought, i.e., to our habits.
VIII. In saying that "education is a life," the need of intellectual and moral as well as of physical sustenance is implied. The mind feeds on ideas, and therefore children should have a generous curriculum.
IX. We hold that the child's mind is no mere sac to hold ideas; but is rather, if the figure may be allowed, a spiritual organism, with an appetite for all knowledge. This is its proper diet, with which it is prepared to deal; and which it can digest and assimilate as the body does foodstuffs.
X. Such a doctrine as e.g. the Herbartian, that the mind is a receptacle, lays the stress of education (the preparation of knowledge in enticing morsels duly ordered) upon the teacher. Children taught on this principle are in danger of receiving much teaching with little knowledge; and the teacher's axiom is, "what a child learns matters less than how he learns it."
XI. But we, believing that the normal child has powers of mind which fit him to deal with all knowledge proper to him, give him a full and generous curriculum; taking care only that all knowledge offered him is vital, that is, the facts are not presented without their informing ideas. Out of this conception comes our principle that,—
XII. "Education is the Science of Relations"; that is, that a child has natural relations with a vast number of things and thoughts: so we train him upon physical exercises, nature lore, handicrafts, science and art, and upon many living books, for we know that our business is not to teach him all about anything, but to help him make valid as many as may be of‚
"That fit our new existence to existing things."†
XIII. In devising a SYLLABUS for any child, three points must be considered:
XIV. As knowledge is not assimilated until it is reproduced, children should "tell back" after a single reading or hearing, or should write on some part of what they have read.
XV. A single reading is insisted upon, because children have naturally great power of attention; but this force is dissipated by the re-reading of passages, and also, by questioning, summarizing, and the like.
XVI. There are two guides to moral and intellectual self-management to offer to children, which we may call 'the way of the will' and "the way of the reason."
XVII. The way of the will: Children should be taught, (a) to distinguish between "I want" and "I will." (b) That the way to will effectively is to turn our thoughts from that which we desire but do not will. (c) That the best way to turn our thoughts is to think of or do some quite different thing, entertaining or interesting. (d) That after a little rest in this way, the will returns to its work with new vigor. (This adjunct of the will is familiar to us as diversion, whose office is to ease us for a time from will effort, that we may "will" again with added power. The use of suggestion as an aid to the will is to be deprecated, as tending to stultify and stereotype character. It would seem that spontaneity is a condition of development, and that human nature needs the discipline of failure as well as of success.)
XVIII. The way of the reason: We teach children, too, not to "lean (too confidently) to their own understanding"; because the function of reason is to give logical demonstration (a) of mathematical truth, (b) of an initial idea, accepted by the will. In the former case, reason is, practically, an infallible guide, but in the latter, it is not always a safe one; for, whether that idea be right or wrong, reason will confirm it by irrefragable proofs.
XIX. Therefore, children should be taught, as they become mature enough to understand such teaching, that the chief responsibility which rests on them as persons is the acceptance or rejection of ideas. To help them in this choice we give them principles of conduct, and a wide range of knowledge fitted to them. These principles should save children from some of the loose thinking and heedless action which cause most of us to live as a lower level than we need.
XX. We allow no separation to grow up between the intellectual and spiritual life of children, but teach them that the Divine Spirit has constant access to their spirits, and is their Continual Helper in all the interests, duties, and joys of life.
† The Prelude, William Wordsworth, 1888